The larva of a goldenrod gall fly was found inside this stem gall. Over 2,000 North American insect species form galls of many types.

The swollen goldenrod stem looked like it had a tumor in it. I carefully slit it open with the tip of my knife revealing a larva of the goldenrod gall fly. It had been placed inside the stem as an egg by its mother. As the larva hatched and began feeding, it released chemicals that coerced the plant into creating a gall that formed comfortable and safe living quarters for the larva.

Over 2,000 types of beetles, wasps, moths, flies and aphids, as well as nematodes, mites, lice, fungi and bacteria all cause abnormal plant growths usually called galls. They may occur on any part of the plant: roots, stems, leaves, flowers and even under the bark.

Galls form when chemicals infused by the critter take control of the growth and the development of the gall. The plant is helpless to do anything about the runaway cell division. Some scientists believe these same chemicals might be at the root of many human cancers.

Galls come in a fascinating array of shapes and sizes. They can be less than one sixteenth of an inch to over one meter long, depending on the infecting species and the plant itself. Galls produced by insects and other critters tend to be small, up to two inches in diameter. Those produced by fungi and bacteria can be much larger.

Each organism has its own signature gall. They vary from a round hard ball called an oak apple to the fuzzy wool-sower gall that looks like a small flattened ball of wool with red “seeds” in it. Some look like ugly cancers. Other galls are so unique or attractive that they are used for decoration.

Some species attack only a specific plant, but others may have several alternate hosts. However, the chemicals create similar galls even with different hosts. Truly, the insect has full control of the gall forming process.

Galls come in two main classes. For insects that have chewing mouthparts such as wasps and flies, galls are completely enclosed like that on the goldenrod. When it comes time for the adult to leave the gall, it simply chews its way out. Insects and other critters with sucking mouthparts must have a gall that is partially open or one that splits open when it is time to emerge.

Once vacated by their original occupants, some galls can become homes for others. For instance, a small wasp uses the goldenrod gall as a nursery. She deposits an egg and food into the gall and then seals the hole.

Galls can occur on many plants, but there are some species that are more susceptible than others. Look for galls on oaks, members of the rose family which include chokecherries and serviceberries, willows, cottonwoods and members of the aster family, including goldenrod.

Plant systems are hijacked by the gall producing animals but in the long run, the galls are of little consequence to the plant. There is generally no need to attempt to control insects that cause galls.

On the other hand, I find it curious to contemplate what we would think about an insect capable of injecting humans with chemicals that basically hijack our minds or bodies. I suspect we would wage war and eradicate them if we could—while at the same time defending our right to do the same thing with chemicals of our own choosing.

"WOW. What a phenomenal piece you wrote. You are amazing." Jennifer Jackson

That is embarrassing, but actually a fairly typical response to my nature essays. Since The Best of Nature is created from the very best of 16 years of these nature essays published weekly in the Idaho Falls Post Register (online readership 70,000), it is a fine read. It covers a wide variety of topics including humorous glimpses of nature, philosophy, natural history, and conservation. Readers praise the style, breadth of subject matter and my ability to communicate complex and emotional topics in a relaxed and understandable manner.

Everyone can find something to love in this book. From teenagers to octogenarians, from the coffee shop to the school room, these nature essays are widely read and enjoyed.

Some of the essays here are my personal favorites, others seemed to strike a chord with readers. Most have an important message or lesson that will resonate with you. They are written with a goal to simultaneously entertain and educate about the wonderful workings of nature. Some will make you laugh out loud and others will bring a tear to the eye and warm your heart.

Readers Write:

"You hit a home run with your article on, Big Questions in Nature. It should be required reading for everyone who has lost touch with nature...great job!" Joe Chapman

"We enjoyed your column, Bloom Where Planted. Some of the best writing yet. The Post Register is fortunate to have your weekly columns." Lou Griffin.

To read more and to order a copy, click here or get the Kindle version 


Copies are also available at:

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